Bibliography

As part of the MediaMill project we’ve been reading a lot of academic papers. Here’s an uptodate list of what we’ve been reading sorted into topics.

Civic DashboardsOpen DataHyperlocalData Journalism

2015

  • Kitchin, R., Maalsen, S. & McArdle, G. (2015) The Praxis and Politics of Building Urban Dashboards Rochester, NY, .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This paper critically reflects on the building of the Dublin Dashboard — a website that provides citizens, planners, policy makers and companies with an extensive set of data and interactive visualizations about Dublin City, including real-time information — from the perspective of critical data studies. The analysis draws upon participant observation, ethnography, and an archive of correspondence, to unpack the building of the Dashboard and the emergent politics of data and design. Our findings reveal four main observations. First, a dashboard is a complex socio-technical assemblage of actors and actants that work materially and discursively within a set of social and economic constraints, existing technologies and systems, and power geometries to assemble, produce and maintain the website. Second, the production and maintenance of a dashboard unfolds contextually, contingently and relationally through transduction. Third, the praxis and politics of creating a dashboard has wider recursive effects: just as building the dashboard was shaped by the wider institutional landscape, producing the system inflected that landscape. Fourth, the data, configuration, tools, and modes of presentation of a dashboard produce a particularised set of spatial knowledges about the city. We conclude that rather than frame dashboard development in purely technical terms, it is important to openly recognize their contested and negotiated politics and praxis.

    @techreport{kitchin_praxis_2015,
    address = {Rochester, NY},
    type = {{SSRN} {Scholarly} {Paper}},
    title = {The {Praxis} and {Politics} of {Building} {Urban} {Dashboards}},
    url = {http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2608988},
    abstract = {This paper critically reflects on the building of the Dublin Dashboard -- a website that provides citizens, planners, policy makers and companies with an extensive set of data and interactive visualizations about Dublin City, including real-time information -- from the perspective of critical data studies. The analysis draws upon participant observation, ethnography, and an archive of correspondence, to unpack the building of the Dashboard and the emergent politics of data and design. Our findings reveal four main observations. First, a dashboard is a complex socio-technical assemblage of actors and actants that work materially and discursively within a set of social and economic constraints, existing technologies and systems, and power geometries to assemble, produce and maintain the website. Second, the production and maintenance of a dashboard unfolds contextually, contingently and relationally through transduction. Third, the praxis and politics of creating a dashboard has wider recursive effects: just as building the dashboard was shaped by the wider institutional landscape, producing the system inflected that landscape. Fourth, the data, configuration, tools, and modes of presentation of a dashboard produce a particularised set of spatial knowledges about the city. We conclude that rather than frame dashboard development in purely technical terms, it is important to openly recognize their contested and negotiated politics and praxis.},
    number = {ID 2608988},
    urldate = {2015-12-01},
    institution = {Social Science Research Network},
    author = {Kitchin, Rob and Maalsen, Sophia and McArdle, Gavin},
    month = may,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {assemblage, dashboard, data, Dublin, politics, smart city},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/SXFGEGQ7/papers.html:text/html}
    }

  • Kitchin, R., Lauriault, T. P. & McArdle, G. (2015) Knowing and governing cities through urban indicators, city benchmarking and real-time dashboards. IN Regional studies, regional science, 2.6-28. doi:10.1080/21681376.2014.983149
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the mid-1990s a plethora of indicator projects have been developed and adopted by cities seeking to measure and monitor various aspects of urban systems. These have been accompanied by city benchmarking endeavours that seek to compare intra- and inter-urban performance. More recently, the data underpinning such projects have started to become more open to citizens, more real-time in nature generated through sensors and locative/social media, and displayed via interactive visualisations and dashboards that can be accessed via the internet. In this paper, we examine such initiatives arguing that they advance a narrowly conceived but powerful realist epistemology – the city as visualised facts – that is reshaping how managers and citizens come to know and govern cities. We set out how and to what ends indicator, benchmarking and dashboard initiatives are being employed by cities. We argue that whilst these initiatives often seek to make urban processes and performance more transparent and to improve decision making, they are also underpinned by a naive instrumental rationality, are open to manipulation by vested interests, and suffer from often unacknowledged methodological and technical issues. Drawing on our own experience of working on indicator and dashboard projects, we argue for a conceptual re-imaging of such projects as data assemblages – complex, politically-infused, socio-technical systems that, rather than reflecting cities, actively frame and produce them.

    @article{kitchin_knowing_2015,
    title = {Knowing and governing cities through urban indicators, city benchmarking and real-time dashboards},
    volume = {2},
    issn = {null},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21681376.2014.983149},
    doi = {10.1080/21681376.2014.983149},
    abstract = {Since the mid-1990s a plethora of indicator projects have been developed and adopted by cities seeking to measure and monitor various aspects of urban systems. These have been accompanied by city benchmarking endeavours that seek to compare intra- and inter-urban performance. More recently, the data underpinning such projects have started to become more open to citizens, more real-time in nature generated through sensors and locative/social media, and displayed via interactive visualisations and dashboards that can be accessed via the internet. In this paper, we examine such initiatives arguing that they advance a narrowly conceived but powerful realist epistemology – the city as visualised facts – that is reshaping how managers and citizens come to know and govern cities. We set out how and to what ends indicator, benchmarking and dashboard initiatives are being employed by cities. We argue that whilst these initiatives often seek to make urban processes and performance more transparent and to improve decision making, they are also underpinned by a naive instrumental rationality, are open to manipulation by vested interests, and suffer from often unacknowledged methodological and technical issues. Drawing on our own experience of working on indicator and dashboard projects, we argue for a conceptual re-imaging of such projects as data assemblages – complex, politically-infused, socio-technical systems that, rather than reflecting cities, actively frame and produce them.},
    number = {1},
    urldate = {2015-11-17},
    journal = {Regional Studies, Regional Science},
    author = {Kitchin, Rob and Lauriault, Tracey P. and McArdle, Gavin},
    month = jan,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Civic dashboard, Data dashboard},
    pages = {6--28},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/H4X2JNH5/Kitchin et al. - 2015 - Knowing and governing cities through urban indicat.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/QSK6HSNA/21681376.2014.html:text/html}
    }

  • Mattern, S. (2015) History of the Urban Dashboard. IN Places journal, ..
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Futuristic control rooms with endless screens of blinking data are proliferating in cities across the globe. Welcome to the age of Dashboard Governance.

    @article{mattern_history_2015,
    title = {History of the {Urban} {Dashboard}},
    url = {https://placesjournal.org/article/mission-control-a-history-of-the-urban-dashboard/#footnote_17},
    abstract = {Futuristic control rooms with endless screens of blinking data are proliferating in cities across the globe. Welcome to the age of Dashboard Governance.},
    urldate = {2015-11-23},
    journal = {Places Journal},
    author = {Mattern, Shannon},
    month = mar,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Civic dashboard, Urban Dashboard},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/ZA9B6B3E/mission-control-a-history-of-the-urban-dashboard.html:text/html}
    }

  • dstrom , A. (2015) Does your city have a data dashboard? .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    I love data dashboards. They are a great way to visualize data, to spot trends quickly, to get a handle on complex relationships, and to just geek out in general. At the Tableau conference last fal…

    @misc{dstrom_does_2015,
    title = {Does your city have a data dashboard?},
    url = {http://blog.strom.com/wp/?p=4755},
    abstract = {I love data dashboards. They are a great way to visualize data, to spot trends quickly, to get a handle on complex relationships, and to just geek out in general. At the Tableau conference last fal…},
    urldate = {2016-02-24},
    journal = {David Strom's Web Informant},
    author = {dstrom, Author},
    month = mar,
    year = {2015},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/RC3CEEPS/dstrom - 2015 - Does your city have a data dashboard.html:text/html}
    }

  • Batty, M. (2015) A perspective on city dashboards. IN Regional studies, regional science, 2.29-32. doi:10.1080/21681376.2014.987540
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{batty_perspective_2015,
    title = {A perspective on city dashboards},
    volume = {2},
    issn = {null},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21681376.2014.987540},
    doi = {10.1080/21681376.2014.987540},
    number = {1},
    urldate = {2015-11-17},
    journal = {Regional Studies, Regional Science},
    author = {Batty, Michael},
    month = jan,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Civic Dashboards, Data dashboard},
    pages = {29--32},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/FGR52RW8/Batty - 2015 - A perspective on city dashboards.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/QPN7DKQA/21681376.2014.html:text/html}
    }

2014

  • Bartlett Jamie & Tkacz, N. (2014) Keeping an Eye on the Dashboard. IN Demos quarterly, ..
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{bartlett_jamie_keeping_2014,
    title = {Keeping an {Eye} on the {Dashboard}},
    url = {http://quarterly.demos.co.uk/article/issue-4/keeping-an-eye-on-the-dashboard/},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Demos Quarterly},
    author = {{Bartlett Jamie} and Tkacz, Nathaniel},
    month = oct,
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Civic Dashboards, Data dashboard}
    }

2011

  • Foth, M., Choi, J. H. & Satchell, C. (2011) Urban informatics ACM Press, 1. doi:10.1145/1958824.1958826
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @inproceedings{foth_urban_2011,
    title = {Urban informatics},
    isbn = {9781450305563},
    url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1958824.1958826},
    doi = {10.1145/1958824.1958826},
    language = {en},
    urldate = {2015-12-01},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Foth, Marcus and Choi, Jaz Hee-jeong and Satchell, Christine},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Data dashboard, urban informatics},
    pages = {1}
    }

  • Rethinking Smart Cities From The Ground Up \textbar Nesta .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This report tells the stories of cities around the world – from Beijing to Amsterdam, and from London to Jakarta – that are addressing urban challenges by using digital technologies to engage and enable citizens.

    @misc{_rethinking_????,
    title = {Rethinking {Smart} {Cities} {From} {The} {Ground} {Up} {\textbar} {Nesta}},
    url = {http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/rethinking-smart-cities-ground},
    abstract = {This report tells the stories of cities around the world - from Beijing to Amsterdam, and from London to Jakarta - that are addressing urban challenges by using digital technologies to engage and enable citizens.},
    urldate = {2015-12-02},
    keywords = {Data dashboard, Smart City},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/84UBTPVC/rethinking-smart-cities-ground.html:text/html}
    }

2015

  • Nugroho, R. P., Zuiderwijk, A., Janssen, M. & de Jong, M. (2015) A comparison of national open data policies: lessons learned. IN Transforming government: people, process and policy, 9.286-308. doi:10.1108/TG-03-2014-0008
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{nugroho_comparison_2015,
    title = {A comparison of national open data policies: lessons learned},
    volume = {9},
    issn = {1750-6166},
    shorttitle = {A comparison of national open data policies},
    url = {http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/10.1108/TG-03-2014-0008},
    doi = {10.1108/TG-03-2014-0008},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    urldate = {2016-03-11},
    journal = {Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy},
    author = {Nugroho, Rininta Putri and Zuiderwijk, Anneke and Janssen, Marijn and de Jong, Martin},
    month = aug,
    year = {2015},
    pages = {286--308}
    }

  • Headd, M. (2015) I Hate Open Data Portals .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Well, not really – But I do dislike certain things about most open data portals. Even the ones that I work with every day or that I have been involved with in the past. Don’t get me wro…

    @misc{headd_i_2015,
    title = {I {Hate} {Open} {Data} {Portals}},
    url = {http://civic.io/2015/04/01/i-hate-open-data-portals/},
    abstract = {Well, not really – But I do dislike certain things about most open data portals. Even the ones that I work with every day or that I have been involved with in the past. Don’t get me wro…},
    urldate = {2016-03-01},
    journal = {Civic Innovations},
    author = {Headd, Mark},
    month = apr,
    year = {2015},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/SCKDSNHK/i-hate-open-data-portals.html:text/html}
    }

  • McKenna, B. (2015) Open data and the horizon of the next government .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Ralph Lucas, who sits on the Lords Digital Skills Select Committee, bewailed what he called "data huggers", giving the example of UCAS. "In the UK 25,000 kids drop out of university each year. Another 100,000 say they have made the wrong choice of course. UCAS has vast amounts of data that could help with that problem. But they won’t release it. 250 students making a better choice each year would equal what UCAS makes from selling its data. That is a plum opportunity for the UK to make millions of pounds.

    @misc{mckenna_open_2015,
    type = {News},
    title = {Open data and the horizon of the next government},
    url = {http://www.computerweekly.com/blogs/Data-Matters/2015/03/open-data-and-the-horizon-of-the-next-government.html},
    abstract = {Ralph Lucas, who sits on the Lords Digital Skills Select Committee, bewailed what he called "data huggers", giving the example of UCAS. "In the UK 25,000 kids drop out of university each year. Another 100,000 say they have made the wrong choice of course. UCAS has vast amounts of data that could help with that problem. But they won't release it. 250 students making a better choice each year would equal what UCAS makes from selling its data. That is a plum opportunity for the UK to make millions of pounds.},
    journal = {Computer Weekly},
    author = {McKenna, Brian},
    month = mar,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {open data, open government}
    }

  • Terpolilli, N. (2015) Open Data Purists vs Open Data Pragmatists: Open Data is on the same path .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When we recently published OpenDataInception, a list of 1600+ Open Data portals gathered from multiple sources, most of the reactions were…

    @misc{terpolilli_open_2015,
    title = {Open {Data} {Purists} vs {Open} {Data} {Pragmatists}: {Open} {Data} is on the same path},
    shorttitle = {Open {Data} {Purists} vs {Open} {Data} {Pragmatists}},
    url = {https://medium.com/@nicolasterpolilli/open-data-missing-layers-c23dc176ce9b#---308-384.xjxs1qf39#opendata},
    abstract = {When we recently published OpenDataInception, a list of 1600+ Open Data portals gathered from multiple sources, most of the reactions were…},
    urldate = {2016-02-29},
    journal = {Medium},
    author = {Terpolilli, Nicolas},
    month = nov,
    year = {2015},
    file = {Medium Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/33NGBN6J/Terpolilli - 2015 - Open Data Purists vs Open Data Pragmatists Open D.html:text/html}
    }

  • Ann-Sofie Hellberg & Karin Hedström (2015) The story of the sixth myth of open data and open governmentnull. IN Transforming government: people, process and policy, 9.35-51. doi:10.1108/TG-04-2014-0013
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{ann-sofie_hellberg_story_2015,
    title = {The story of the sixth myth of open data and open governmentnull},
    volume = {9},
    issn = {1750-6166},
    url = {http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/TG-04-2014-0013},
    doi = {10.1108/TG-04-2014-0013},
    number = {1},
    urldate = {2015-09-17},
    journal = {Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy},
    author = {{Ann-Sofie Hellberg} and {Karin Hedström}},
    month = mar,
    year = {2015},
    pages = {35--51}
    }

  • Peled, A. & Nahon, K. (2015) Towards Open Data for Public Accountability: Examining the US and the UK Models Rochester, NY, .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since 2009 governments worldwide have been developing Open Government Data (OGD) programs. Our paper examines the ways in which public agencies in the two leading OGD countries, the US and the UK, have released information assets to promote public sector accountability. Theoretically and empirically, we discuss the vision and execution of the OGD policy in these countries since 2009 and demonstrate that the movement took a different path than the one chartered by the original policy makers. We then propose a new path for the OGD movement to better support the democratic ideal of improved accountability of public sector agencies.

    @techreport{peled_towards_2015,
    address = {Rochester, NY},
    type = {{SSRN} {Scholarly} {Paper}},
    title = {Towards {Open} {Data} for {Public} {Accountability}: {Examining} the {US} and the {UK} {Models}},
    shorttitle = {Towards {Open} {Data} for {Public} {Accountability}},
    url = {http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2546017},
    abstract = {Since 2009 governments worldwide have been developing Open Government Data (OGD) programs. Our paper examines the ways in which public agencies in the two leading OGD countries, the US and the UK, have released information assets to promote public sector accountability. Theoretically and empirically, we discuss the vision and execution of the OGD policy in these countries since 2009 and demonstrate that the movement took a different path than the one chartered by the original policy makers. We then propose a new path for the OGD movement to better support the democratic ideal of improved accountability of public sector agencies.},
    number = {ID 2546017},
    urldate = {2015-01-15},
    institution = {Social Science Research Network},
    author = {Peled, Alon and Nahon, Karine},
    month = jan,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Accountability, Disclosure, Open data, Open government, transparency},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/JNEZCEP7/Peled and Nahon - 2015 - Towards Open Data for Public Accountability Exami.html:text/html}
    }

  • Dodds, L. (2015) What is a data portal? .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This post is part of my ongoing series of basic questions about data, this time prompted by a tweet by Andy Dickinson asking the same question. There are lots of open data portals. OpenDataMonitor …

    @misc{dodds_what_2015,
    title = {What is a data portal?},
    url = {http://blog.ldodds.com/2015/10/13/what-is-a-data-portal/},
    abstract = {This post is part of my ongoing series of basic questions about data, this time prompted by a tweet by Andy Dickinson asking the same question. There are lots of open data portals. OpenDataMonitor …},
    urldate = {2016-03-01},
    journal = {Lost Boy},
    author = {Dodds, Leigh},
    month = oct,
    year = {2015},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/UUGSZUCC/Dodds - 2015 - What is a data portal.html:text/html}
    }

  • (2015) When open data sucks .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nobody talks much about the pitfalls of using open data in a real life project. I’ll make a start.

    @misc{_when_2015,
    title = {When open data sucks},
    url = {http://www.webunknown.co.uk/play/posts/when-open-data-sucks},
    abstract = {Nobody talks much about the pitfalls of using open data in a real life project. I'll make a start.},
    urldate = {2016-02-24},
    journal = {webunknown},
    month = jun,
    year = {2015},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/5D8NAVTI/2015 - When open data sucks.html:text/html}
    }

2014

  • Heimstädt, M., Saunderson, F. & Heath, T. (2014) Conceptualizing Open Data ecosystems: A timeline analysis of Open Data development in the UK .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @techreport{heimstadt_conceptualizing_2014,
    title = {Conceptualizing {Open} {Data} ecosystems: {A} timeline analysis of {Open} {Data} development in the {UK}},
    shorttitle = {Conceptualizing {Open} {Data} ecosystems},
    url = {http://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/96627},
    language = {eng},
    number = {2014/12},
    urldate = {2015-09-17},
    institution = {Discussion Paper, School of Business \& Economics: Management},
    author = {Heimstädt, Maximilian and Saunderson, Fredric and Heath, Tom},
    year = {2014},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/B22UBZRG/Heimstädt et al. - 2014 - Conceptualizing Open Data ecosystems A timeline a.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/XH9GSMCZ/Heimstädt et al. - 2014 - Conceptualizing Open Data ecosystems A timeline a.html:text/html}
    }

  • van der Waal, S., Węcel, K., Ermilov, I., Janev, V., Milošević, U. & Wainwright, M. (2014) Lifting Open Data Portals to the Data Web. IN Auer, S., Bryl, V. & Tramp, S. (Eds.), Linked Open Data — Creating Knowledge Out of Interlinked Data..
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recently, a large number of open data repositories, catalogs and portals have been emerging in the scientific and government realms. In this chapter, we characterise this newly emerging class of information systems. We describe the key functionality of open data portals, present a conceptual model and showcase the pan-European data portal PublicData.eu as a prominent example. Using examples from Serbia and Poland, we present an approach for lifting the often semantically shallow datasets registered at such data portals to Linked Data in order to make data portals the backbone of a distributed global data warehouse for our information society on the Web.

    @incollection{waal_lifting_2014,
    series = {Lecture {Notes} in {Computer} {Science}},
    title = {Lifting {Open} {Data} {Portals} to the {Data} {Web}},
    copyright = {©2014 The Author(s)},
    isbn = {978-3-319-09845-6, 978-3-319-09846-3},
    url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-09846-3_9},
    abstract = {Recently, a large number of open data repositories, catalogs and portals have been emerging in the scientific and government realms. In this chapter, we characterise this newly emerging class of information systems. We describe the key functionality of open data portals, present a conceptual model and showcase the pan-European data portal PublicData.eu as a prominent example. Using examples from Serbia and Poland, we present an approach for lifting the often semantically shallow datasets registered at such data portals to Linked Data in order to make data portals the backbone of a distributed global data warehouse for our information society on the Web.},
    language = {en},
    number = {8661},
    urldate = {2016-03-01},
    booktitle = {Linked {Open} {Data} -- {Creating} {Knowledge} {Out} of {Interlinked} {Data}},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    author = {Waal, Sander van der and Węcel, Krzysztof and Ermilov, Ivan and Janev, Valentina and Milošević, Uroš and Wainwright, Mark},
    editor = {Auer, Sören and Bryl, Volha and Tramp, Sebastian},
    year = {2014},
    note = {DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09846-3\_9},
    keywords = {Artificial Intelligence (incl. Robotics), Database Management, Information Systems and Communication Service},
    pages = {175--195},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/6I64X6H5/Waal et al. - 2014 - Lifting Open Data Portals to the Data Web.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/EMQE6C24/978-3-319-09846-3_9.html:text/html}
    }

  • Stott, A. (2014) Open Data for economic growth: the latest evidence .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    One of the key policy drivers for Open Data has been to drive economic growth and business innovation. There’s a growing amount of evidence and analysis not only for the total potential economic benefit but also for some of the ways in which this is coming about. This evidence is summarised and reviewed in a new World Bank paper published today. There’s a range of studies that suggest that the potential prize from Open Data could be enormous – including an estimate of \$3-5 trillion a year globally from McKinsey Global Institute and an estimate of \$13 trillion cumulative over the next 5 years in the G20 countries. There are supporting studies of the value of Open Data to certain sectors in certain countries – for instance \$20 billion a year to Agriculture in the US – and of the value of key datasets such as geospatial data. All these support the conclusion that the economic potential is at least significant – although with a range from “significant” to “extremely significant”!

    @misc{stott_open_2014,
    type = {Text},
    title = {Open {Data} for economic growth: the latest evidence},
    shorttitle = {Open {Data} for economic growth},
    url = {http://blogs.worldbank.org/ic4d/open-data-economic-growth-latest-evidence},
    abstract = {One of the key policy drivers for Open Data has been to drive economic growth and business innovation. There’s a growing amount of evidence and analysis not only for the total potential economic benefit but also for some of the ways in which this is coming about. This evidence is summarised and reviewed in a new World Bank paper published today. There’s a range of studies that suggest that the potential prize from Open Data could be enormous - including an estimate of \$3-5 trillion a year globally from McKinsey Global Institute and an estimate of \$13 trillion cumulative over the next 5 years in the G20 countries. There are supporting studies of the value of Open Data to certain sectors in certain countries - for instance \$20 billion a year to Agriculture in the US - and of the value of key datasets such as geospatial data. All these support the conclusion that the economic potential is at least significant - although with a range from “significant” to “extremely significant”!},
    language = {en},
    urldate = {2015-06-17},
    journal = {Information and Communications for Development},
    author = {Stott, Andrew},
    month = jul,
    year = {2014},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/796KHPKR/Stott - 2014 - Open Data for economic growth the latest evidence.html:text/html}
    }

  • 2nd, O., Policy, 2., Government & Comments, H. E. (2014) The progressive ideals behind Open Government Data are being used to further interests of the neoliberal state. .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    A range of social actors are pushing for Open Government Data, from open research advocates to the private sector, resulting in a complex and contested landscape. Jo Bates examines recent developme…

    @misc{2nd_progressive_2014,
    title = {The progressive ideals behind {Open} {Government} {Data} are being used to further interests of the neoliberal state.},
    url = {http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2014/10/02/open-government-data-and-the-neoliberal-state/},
    abstract = {A range of social actors are pushing for Open Government Data, from open research advocates to the private sector, resulting in a complex and contested landscape. Jo Bates examines recent developme…},
    urldate = {2016-03-02},
    journal = {Impact of Social Sciences},
    author = {2nd, October and Policy, 2014{\textbar}Evidence-based and {Government} and Comments, Higher Education{\textbar}11},
    month = oct,
    year = {2014},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/IIXCDDIS/open-government-data-and-the-neoliberal-state.html:text/html}
    }

2013

  • Kassen, M. (2013) A promising phenomenon of open data: A case study of the Chicago open data project. IN Government information quarterly, 30.508-513. doi:10.1016/j.giq.2013.05.012
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This article presents a case study of the open data project in the Chicago area. The main purpose of the research is to explore empowering potential of an open data phenomenon at the local level as a platform useful for promotion of civic engagement projects and provide a framework for future research and hypothesis testing. Today the main challenge in realization of any e-government projects is a traditional top–down administrative mechanism of their realization itself practically without any input from members of the civil society. In this respect, the author of the article argues that the open data concept realized at the local level may provide a real platform for promotion of proactive civic engagement. By harnessing collective wisdom of the local communities, their knowledge and visions of the local challenges, governments could react and meet citizens’ needs in a more productive and cost-efficient manner. Open data-driven projects that focused on visualization of environmental issues, mapping of utility management, evaluating of political lobbying, social benefits, closing digital divide, etc. are only some examples of such perspectives. These projects are perhaps harbingers of a new political reality where interactions among citizens at the local level will play a more important role than communication between civil society and government due to the empowering potential of the open data concept.

    @article{kassen_promising_2013,
    title = {A promising phenomenon of open data: {A} case study of the {Chicago} open data project},
    volume = {30},
    issn = {0740-624X},
    shorttitle = {A promising phenomenon of open data},
    url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740624X13000683},
    doi = {10.1016/j.giq.2013.05.012},
    abstract = {This article presents a case study of the open data project in the Chicago area. The main purpose of the research is to explore empowering potential of an open data phenomenon at the local level as a platform useful for promotion of civic engagement projects and provide a framework for future research and hypothesis testing. Today the main challenge in realization of any e-government projects is a traditional top–down administrative mechanism of their realization itself practically without any input from members of the civil society. In this respect, the author of the article argues that the open data concept realized at the local level may provide a real platform for promotion of proactive civic engagement. By harnessing collective wisdom of the local communities, their knowledge and visions of the local challenges, governments could react and meet citizens' needs in a more productive and cost-efficient manner. Open data-driven projects that focused on visualization of environmental issues, mapping of utility management, evaluating of political lobbying, social benefits, closing digital divide, etc. are only some examples of such perspectives. These projects are perhaps harbingers of a new political reality where interactions among citizens at the local level will play a more important role than communication between civil society and government due to the empowering potential of the open data concept.},
    number = {4},
    urldate = {2016-03-11},
    journal = {Government Information Quarterly},
    author = {Kassen, Maxat},
    month = oct,
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Case study, Chicago, Civic engagement, Freedom of information, Open data, Open government},
    pages = {508--513},
    file = {ScienceDirect Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/2K7PMA5E/Kassen - 2013 - A promising phenomenon of open data A case study .html:text/html}
    }

  • Ubaldi, B. (2013) Open Government Data Paris, .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Open Government Data (OGD) initiatives, and in particular the development of OGD portals, have proliferated since the mid-2000s both at central and local government levels in OECD and non OECD countries. Understanding the preconditions that enable the efficient and effective implementation of these initiatives is essential for achieving their overall objectives. This is especially true in terms of the role played by OGD in relation to Open Government policies in general. This paper highlights the main principles, concepts and criteria framing open government data initiatives and the issues challenging their implementation. It underlines the opportunities that OGD and data analytics may offer policy makers, while providing a note of caution on the challenges this agenda poses for the public sector. Finally, the overall analysis of key concepts and issues aims to pave the way for an empirical analysis of OGD initiatives. So far, little has been done to analyse and prove the impact and accrued value of these initiatives. The paper suggests a methodology comprising an analytical framework for OGD initiatives (to be applied to ex post and ex ante analysis of initiatives) and a related set of data to be collected across OECD countries. The application of the analytical framework and the collection of data would enable the acquisition of a solid body of evidence that could ultimately lead to mapping initiatives across OECD countries (i.e. a typography of initiatives) and developing a common set of metrics to consistently assess impact and value creation within and across countries.

    @techreport{ubaldi_open_2013,
    address = {Paris},
    type = {{OECD} {Working} {Papers} on {Public} {Governance}},
    title = {Open {Government} {Data}},
    url = {http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/workingpaper/5k46bj4f03s7-en},
    abstract = {Open Government Data (OGD) initiatives, and in particular the development of OGD portals, have proliferated since the mid-2000s both at central and local government levels in OECD and non OECD countries. Understanding the preconditions that enable the efficient and effective implementation of these initiatives is essential for achieving their overall objectives. This is especially true in terms of the role played by OGD in relation to Open Government policies in general. This paper highlights the main principles, concepts and criteria framing open government data initiatives and the issues challenging their implementation. It underlines the opportunities that OGD and data analytics may offer policy makers, while providing a note of caution on the challenges this agenda poses for the public sector. Finally, the overall analysis of key concepts and issues aims to pave the way for an empirical analysis of OGD initiatives. So far, little has been done to analyse and prove the impact and accrued value of these initiatives. The paper suggests a methodology comprising an analytical framework for OGD initiatives (to be applied to ex post and ex ante analysis of initiatives) and a related set of data to be collected across OECD countries. The application of the analytical framework and the collection of data would enable the acquisition of a solid body of evidence that could ultimately lead to mapping initiatives across OECD countries (i.e. a typography of initiatives) and developing a common set of metrics to consistently assess impact and value creation within and across countries.},
    language = {en},
    urldate = {2015-10-19},
    institution = {Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development},
    author = {Ubaldi, Barbara},
    month = may,
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {open data, portals},
    file = {OECD_Barbara_Ubaldi.pdf:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/R8EDU7FE/OECD_Barbara_Ubaldi.pdf:application/pdf}
    }

2012

  • Slee, T. (2012) Open Data Movement Redux: Tribes and Contradictions .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 The Open Government Data Landscape 3 Open Data: Is it a Movement? 4 Do Civil Liberties and Privatization Belong Together? 5 Civic and Commercial Interests: Comple…

    @misc{slee_open_2012,
    title = {Open {Data} {Movement} {Redux}: {Tribes} and {Contradictions}},
    shorttitle = {Open {Data} {Movement} {Redux}},
    url = {http://tomslee.net/2012/05/open-data-movement-redux-tribes-and-contradictions.html},
    abstract = {Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 The Open Government Data Landscape 3 Open Data: Is it a Movement? 4 Do Civil Liberties and Privatization Belong Together? 5 Civic and Commercial Interests: Comple...},
    urldate = {2015-01-21},
    journal = {Whimsley},
    author = {Slee, Tom},
    month = aug,
    year = {2012},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/FA9MWFZA/Open Data Movement Redux Tribes and Contradiction.html:text/html}
    }

  • Yu, H. & Robinson, D. G. (2012) The New Ambiguity of ‘Open Government’ Rochester, NY, .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    “Open government” used to carry a hard political edge: it referred to politically sensitive disclosures of government information. The phrase was first used in the 1950s, in the debates leading up to passage of the Freedom of Information Act. But over the last few years, that traditional meaning has blurred, and has shifted toward technology. Open technologies involve sharing data over the Internet, and all kinds of governments can use them, for all kinds of reasons. Recent public policies have stretched the label “open government” to reach any public sector use of these technologies. Thus, “open government data” might refer to data that makes the government as a whole more open (that is, more accountable to the public), but might equally well refer to politically neutral public sector disclosures that are easy to reuse, but that may have nothing to do with public accountability. Today a regime can call itself “open” if it builds the right kind of web site — even if it does not become more accountable. This shift in vocabulary makes it harder for policymakers and activists to articulate clear priorities and make cogent demands.This essay proposes a more useful way for participants on all sides to frame the debate: We separate the politics of open government from the technologies of open data. Technology can make public information more adaptable, empowering third parties to contribute in exciting new ways across many aspects of civic life. But technological enhancements will not resolve debates about the best priorities for civic life, and enhancements to government services are no substitute for public accountability.

    @techreport{yu_new_2012,
    address = {Rochester, NY},
    type = {{SSRN} {Scholarly} {Paper}},
    title = {The {New} {Ambiguity} of '{Open} {Government}'},
    url = {http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2012489},
    abstract = {“Open government” used to carry a hard political edge: it referred to politically sensitive disclosures of government information. The phrase was first used in the 1950s, in the debates leading up to passage of the Freedom of Information Act. But over the last few years, that traditional meaning has blurred, and has shifted toward technology. Open technologies involve sharing data over the Internet, and all kinds of governments can use them, for all kinds of reasons. Recent public policies have stretched the label “open government” to reach any public sector use of these technologies. Thus, “open government data” might refer to data that makes the government as a whole more open (that is, more accountable to the public), but might equally well refer to politically neutral public sector disclosures that are easy to reuse, but that may have nothing to do with public accountability. Today a regime can call itself “open” if it builds the right kind of web site — even if it does not become more accountable. This shift in vocabulary makes it harder for policymakers and activists to articulate clear priorities and make cogent demands.This essay proposes a more useful way for participants on all sides to frame the debate: We separate the politics of open government from the technologies of open data. Technology can make public information more adaptable, empowering third parties to contribute in exciting new ways across many aspects of civic life. But technological enhancements will not resolve debates about the best priorities for civic life, and enhancements to government services are no substitute for public accountability.},
    number = {ID 2012489},
    urldate = {2015-01-21},
    institution = {Social Science Research Network},
    author = {Yu, Harlan and Robinson, David G.},
    month = feb,
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {adaptability, e-government, executive branch, government 2.0, Internet, open data, Open government, transparency},
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    }

2011

  • Gurstein, M. (2011) A Data Divide? Data “Haves” and “Have Nots” and Open (Government) Data .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The idea of a possible parallel “data divide” between those who have access and the opportunity to make effective use of data and particularly “open data” and those who do not, began to occur to m…

    @misc{gurstein_data_2011,
    type = {Blog},
    title = {A {Data} {Divide}? {Data} “{Haves}” and “{Have} {Nots}” and {Open} ({Government}) {Data}},
    shorttitle = {A {Data} {Divide}?},
    url = {https://gurstein.wordpress.com/2011/07/11/a-data-divide-data-%e2%80%9chaves%e2%80%9d-and-%e2%80%9chave-nots%e2%80%9d-and-open-government-data/},
    abstract = {The idea of a possible parallel “data divide” between those who have access and the opportunity to make effective use of data and particularly “open data” and those who do not, began to occur to m...},
    urldate = {2015-01-21},
    journal = {Gurstein's Community Informatics},
    author = {Gurstein, Mike},
    month = nov,
    year = {2011},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/6PD3GI8M/A Data Divide Data “Haves” and “Have Nots” and Op.html:text/html}
    }

  • McClean, T. (2011) Not with a Bang but a Whimper: The Politics of Accountability and Open Data in the UK Rochester, NY, .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Can the pro-active release of raw datasets by the government lead to more participatory democracy and government accountability? This paper explores the limits of what is possible through open government data by examining the UK government’s recent release of historic data in its COINS database of public expenditure. The paper begins by examining the origins of the UK’s open government data policy. It shows that far, from constituting a radical departure from pre-existing practice, the use of open data as a tool of democratic consolidation is in fact the outcome of several long-term trends in British politics and administration. It then shows that these origins encouraged a limited view of the likely impact of open government data on the actual exercise of democratic accountability, one which emphasises the removal of institutional barriers to access and tends to be overly-optimistic about how widely these data are likely to be used by individual citizens. Although pro-active disclosure may make it easier for “the public” to obtain information, there are still numerous barriers to actually using it, including the technical challenge of processing the raw data itself, the expertise to understand it and the existence of opportunities to act effectively on it. Overall, the paper argues that far from encouraging direct participation, the resource requirements for using government datasets actually reinforce the importance of intermediary organisations capable of processing and interpreting them, and that a rights-based framework may not be a particularly informative way of understanding the effects of open government data on democratic practice. It also suggests that the experience of the COINS disclosure has thus far confirmed a number of key claims made by technological sceptics, including that information technology is likely to reinforce existing power relations rather than disrupting them.

    @techreport{mcclean_not_2011,
    address = {Rochester, NY},
    type = {{SSRN} {Scholarly} {Paper}},
    title = {Not with a {Bang} but a {Whimper}: {The} {Politics} of {Accountability} and {Open} {Data} in the {UK}},
    shorttitle = {Not with a {Bang} but a {Whimper}},
    url = {http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1899790},
    abstract = {Can the pro-active release of raw datasets by the government lead to more participatory democracy and government accountability? This paper explores the limits of what is possible through open government data by examining the UK government’s recent release of historic data in its COINS database of public expenditure. The paper begins by examining the origins of the UK’s open government data policy. It shows that far, from constituting a radical departure from pre-existing practice, the use of open data as a tool of democratic consolidation is in fact the outcome of several long-term trends in British politics and administration. It then shows that these origins encouraged a limited view of the likely impact of open government data on the actual exercise of democratic accountability, one which emphasises the removal of institutional barriers to access and tends to be overly-optimistic about how widely these data are likely to be used by individual citizens. Although pro-active disclosure may make it easier for “the public” to obtain information, there are still numerous barriers to actually using it, including the technical challenge of processing the raw data itself, the expertise to understand it and the existence of opportunities to act effectively on it. Overall, the paper argues that far from encouraging direct participation, the resource requirements for using government datasets actually reinforce the importance of intermediary organisations capable of processing and interpreting them, and that a rights-based framework may not be a particularly informative way of understanding the effects of open government data on democratic practice. It also suggests that the experience of the COINS disclosure has thus far confirmed a number of key claims made by technological sceptics, including that information technology is likely to reinforce existing power relations rather than disrupting them.},
    number = {ID 1899790},
    urldate = {2015-01-14},
    institution = {Social Science Research Network},
    author = {McClean, Tom},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {accountability, Open Government Data},
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    }

  • Huijboom, N. & Van den Broek, T. (2011) Open data: an international comparison of strategies. IN European journal of epractice, 12.4-16.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{huijboom_open_2011,
    title = {Open data: an international comparison of strategies},
    volume = {12},
    issn = {1988-625X},
    shorttitle = {Open data},
    url = {http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UN-DPADM/UNPAN046727.pdf},
    number = {1},
    urldate = {2015-10-19},
    journal = {European journal of ePractice},
    author = {Huijboom, Noor and Van den Broek, Tijs},
    year = {2011},
    pages = {4--16},
    file = {UNPAN046727.pdf:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/ZTIV9EC4/UNPAN046727.pdf:application/pdf}
    }

  • A “calculus” for Open Data .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    P × B + D {\textgreater} C

    @misc{_calculus_????,
    title = {A “calculus” for {Open} {Data}},
    url = {https://medium.com/@sahuguet/p-b-d-c-1218ee894400},
    abstract = {P × B + D {\textgreater} C},
    urldate = {2015-06-03},
    journal = {Medium},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/CK66V4M8/A “calculus” for Open Data.html:text/html}
    }

  • Horrigan, J. B. & Rainie, L. Americans’ Views on Open Government Data .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Many hope that more transparency and data sharing will help journalists, make officials more accountable and improve decisions. But very few think agencies are doing a great job of providing useful data.

    @misc{horrigan_americans_????,
    title = {Americans’ {Views} on {Open} {Government} {Data}},
    url = {http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/21/open-government-data/},
    abstract = {Many hope that more transparency and data sharing will help journalists, make officials more accountable and improve decisions. But very few think agencies are doing a great job of providing useful data.},
    urldate = {2015-04-24},
    journal = {Pew Research Center's Internet \& American Life Project},
    author = {Horrigan, John B. and Rainie, Lee},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/3SZH6MJS/open-government-data.html:text/html}
    }

  • Washington, S. N. S. 1818. N. 300. & with Skype, D. C. 20036. 202-742-1520. A new approach to measuring the impact of open data .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    (Image credit: r2hox/Flickr) Strong evidence on the long-term impact of open data initiatives is incredibly scarce. The lack of compelling proof is partly due to the relative novelty of the open government field, but also to the inherent difficulties in measuring good governance and social change. We know that much …

    @misc{washington_new_????,
    title = {A new approach to measuring the impact of open data},
    url = {http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2015/05/05/a-new-approach-to-measuring-the-impact-of-open-data/},
    abstract = {(Image credit: r2hox/Flickr) Strong evidence on the long-term impact of open data initiatives is incredibly scarce. The lack of compelling proof is partly due to the relative novelty of the open government field, but also to the inherent difficulties in measuring good governance and social change. We know that much ...},
    urldate = {2015-05-12},
    journal = {Sunlight Foundation},
    author = {Washington, 1818 N. Street NW Suite 300 and Skype, DC 20036 202-742-1520 Call with},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/8GH43W62/Washington and Skype - A new approach to measuring the impact of open dat.html:text/html}
    }

  • Gurin, J. & University, N. Y. Big data and open data: what’s what and why does it matter? \textbar Joel Gurin .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Both types of data can transform the world, but when government turns big data into open data it’s especially powerful

    @misc{gurin_big_????,
    title = {Big data and open data: what's what and why does it matter? {\textbar} {Joel} {Gurin}},
    shorttitle = {Big data and open data},
    url = {http://www.theguardian.com/public-leaders-network/2014/apr/15/big-data-open-data-transform-government},
    abstract = {Both types of data can transform the world, but when government turns big data into open data it's especially powerful},
    urldate = {2015-06-03},
    journal = {the Guardian},
    author = {Gurin, Joel and University, New York},
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    }

  • Gurin, J. & University, N. Y. Big data and open data: what’s what and why does it matter? \textbar Joel Gurin .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Both types of data can transform the world, but when government turns big data into open data it’s especially powerful

    @misc{gurin_big_????-1,
    title = {Big data and open data: what's what and why does it matter? {\textbar} {Joel} {Gurin}},
    shorttitle = {Big data and open data},
    url = {http://www.theguardian.com/public-leaders-network/2014/apr/15/big-data-open-data-transform-government},
    abstract = {Both types of data can transform the world, but when government turns big data into open data it's especially powerful},
    urldate = {2015-06-03},
    journal = {the Guardian},
    author = {Gurin, Joel and University, New York},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/6PDDPG3M/Gurin and University - Big data and open data what's what and why does i.html:text/html}
    }

  • Extending Open Data Beyond Governments .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In Governments and related agencies around the world, the idea that non-sensitive data should be freely available for use and re-use has clearly caught on. Many of the benefits apply just as much to data collected by and for private corporations, but boardrooms are proceeding far more cautiously than parliaments.

    @misc{_extending_????,
    title = {Extending {Open} {Data} {Beyond} {Governments}},
    url = {http://www.forbes.com/sites/paulmiller/2015/06/04/extending-open-data-beyond-governments/},
    abstract = {In Governments and related agencies around the world, the idea that non-sensitive data should be freely available for use and re-use has clearly caught on. Many of the benefits apply just as much to data collected by and for private corporations, but boardrooms are proceeding far more cautiously than parliaments.},
    urldate = {2015-06-09},
    journal = {Forbes},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/P544RV8R/Extending Open Data Beyond Governments.html:text/html}
    }

  • Open data and hacking for social good .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    An observation from two hackathons

    @misc{_open_????,
    title = {Open data and hacking for social good},
    url = {https://medium.com/@farez/open-data-and-hacking-for-social-good-57c037787ae9},
    abstract = {An observation from two hackathons},
    urldate = {2015-06-03},
    journal = {Medium},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/6WGXHZZF/Open data and hacking for social good.html:text/html}
    }

  • Open Data Charter – Publications – GOV.UK .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Charter on open data signed by G8 leaders to promote transparency, innovation and accountability.

    @misc{_open_????-1,
    title = {Open {Data} {Charter} - {Publications} - {GOV}.{UK}},
    url = {https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/open-data-charter},
    abstract = {Charter on open data signed by G8 leaders to promote transparency, innovation and accountability.},
    urldate = {2016-01-15},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/7HKMWW3C/Open Data Charter - Publications - GOV.UK.html:text/html}
    }

  • Hare, J. Open data portals should be API [First] .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Jason Hare, open data guru for the City of Raleigh in North Carolina compares human and API consumed data and makes these observations: Data consumed by humans have lower re-use value in that they are not being redistributed, and data that is served on a web/mobile [First] platform needs more work to re-use data than platforms that are API [First].

    @misc{hare_open_????,
    title = {Open data portals should be {API} [{First}]},
    url = {https://opensource.com/government/14/12/open-data-portals-api-first},
    abstract = {Jason Hare, open data guru for the City of Raleigh in North Carolina compares human and API consumed data and makes these observations: Data consumed by humans have lower re-use value in that they are not being redistributed, and data that is served on a web/mobile [First] platform needs more work to re-use data than platforms that are API [First].},
    urldate = {2016-03-01},
    journal = {Opensource.com},
    author = {Hare, Jason},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/6W3AQSNX/open-data-portals-api-first.html:text/html}
    }

  • Open data use doubles, ‘Citizen Dashboard’ pickup slow .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Use of the City of Edmonton’s “open data” website exploded in 2013, doubling to more than 1.6 million page views from the year prior. But

    @misc{_open_????-2,
    title = {Open data use doubles, ‘{Citizen} {Dashboard}’ pickup slow},
    url = {http://www.gigcity.ca/2014/01/30/open-data-site-use-doubles-citizen-dashboard-pickup-slow/},
    abstract = {Use of the City of Edmonton’s “open data” website exploded in 2013, doubling to more than 1.6 million page views from the year prior. But},
    urldate = {2015-11-17},
    journal = {GIG CITY},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/EZCZQITD/Open data use doubles, ‘Citizen Dashboard’ pickup .html:text/html}
    }

2015

  • Barnett, S. & Townend, J. (2015) Plurality, Policy and the Local: Can hyperlocals fill the gap?. IN Journalism practice, 9.332-349. doi:10.1080/17512786.2014.943930
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{barnett_plurality_2015,
    title = {Plurality, {Policy} and the {Local}: {Can} hyperlocals fill the gap?},
    volume = {9},
    issn = {1751-2786, 1751-2794},
    shorttitle = {Plurality, {Policy} and the {Local}},
    url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17512786.2014.943930},
    doi = {10.1080/17512786.2014.943930},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    urldate = {2016-01-06},
    journal = {Journalism Practice},
    author = {Barnett, Steven and Townend, Judith},
    month = may,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Accountability, hyperlocal, plurality},
    pages = {332--349}
    }

  • Chadha, M. (2015) The Neighborhood Hyperlocal. IN Digital journalism, .1-21. doi:10.1080/21670811.2015.1096747
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Closure of local newspapers and other community weeklies across the United States has severely affected local news coverage, leading concerned citizens and journalists to start hyperlocal news sites in their neighborhoods. Similar to community weeklies, these sites focus on a small, geographically defined area and are usually created to fill a certain gap in news coverage. Few studies, however, reveal much about these sites especially in the United States, including information about those who work for them and whether they are a harbinger of new forms journalism or simply reflections of traditional media. This study examined the social characteristics of those who work in these sites, their perceptions of journalistic behaviors they follow when working with user-generated content and their attitudes towards user-generated content within the theoretical framework of hierarchy of influences and gatekeeping. Findings reveal that journalistic routines and behaviors of the respondents working in hyperlocal media are similar to those practiced by journalists in mainstream media. Implications and future studies are addressed.

    @article{chadha_neighborhood_2015,
    title = {The {Neighborhood} {Hyperlocal}},
    volume = {0},
    issn = {2167-0811},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2015.1096747},
    doi = {10.1080/21670811.2015.1096747},
    abstract = {Closure of local newspapers and other community weeklies across the United States has severely affected local news coverage, leading concerned citizens and journalists to start hyperlocal news sites in their neighborhoods. Similar to community weeklies, these sites focus on a small, geographically defined area and are usually created to fill a certain gap in news coverage. Few studies, however, reveal much about these sites especially in the United States, including information about those who work for them and whether they are a harbinger of new forms journalism or simply reflections of traditional media. This study examined the social characteristics of those who work in these sites, their perceptions of journalistic behaviors they follow when working with user-generated content and their attitudes towards user-generated content within the theoretical framework of hierarchy of influences and gatekeeping. Findings reveal that journalistic routines and behaviors of the respondents working in hyperlocal media are similar to those practiced by journalists in mainstream media. Implications and future studies are addressed.},
    number = {0},
    urldate = {2016-01-06},
    journal = {Digital Journalism},
    author = {Chadha, Monica},
    month = nov,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Accountability, hyperlocal, Journalism},
    pages = {1--21},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/9T6JZTGE/Chadha - 2015 - The Neighborhood Hyperlocal.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/KAXZT499/21670811.2015.html:text/html}
    }

  • Williams, A., Harte, D. & Turner, J. (2015) The Value of UK Hyperlocal Community News. IN Digital journalism, 3.680-703. doi:10.1080/21670811.2014.965932
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{williams_value_2015,
    title = {The {Value} of {UK} {Hyperlocal} {Community} {News}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2167-0811},
    url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.1080/21670811.2014.965932},
    doi = {10.1080/21670811.2014.965932},
    number = {5},
    urldate = {2016-01-06},
    journal = {Digital Journalism},
    author = {Williams, Andy and Harte, Dave and Turner, Jerome},
    month = sep,
    year = {2015},
    pages = {680--703},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/F95M5ISH/21670811.2014.html:text/html}
    }

2014

  • Radcliffe, D. (2014) How Hyperlocal Publishers Can Take Advantage of the Data Gold Rush .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    On Street Fight: How Hyperlocal Publishers Can Take Advantage of the Data Gold Rush \#hyperlocal — Street Fight (@streetfightmag) May 2, 2014 Data needs context RT @streetfightmag: How Hyperlocal Pu…

    @misc{radcliffe_how_2014,
    type = {Blog},
    title = {How {Hyperlocal} {Publishers} {Can} {Take} {Advantage} of the {Data} {Gold} {Rush}},
    url = {http://damianradcliffe.wordpress.com/2014/07/01/how-hyperlocal-publishers-can-take-advantage-of-the-data-gold-rush/},
    abstract = {On Street Fight: How Hyperlocal Publishers Can Take Advantage of the Data Gold Rush \#hyperlocal — Street Fight (@streetfightmag) May 2, 2014 Data needs context RT @streetfightmag: How Hyperlocal Pu...},
    urldate = {2014-10-02},
    journal = {Damian Radcliffe},
    author = {Radcliffe, Damian},
    month = jul,
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {data, hyperlocal},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/KXSQS84A/Radcliffe - How Hyperlocal Publishers Can Take Advantage of th.html:text/html}
    }

  • Ambrose, I. (2014) Tweeting at community council meetings: the role of community journalists in local government scrutiny .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Twitter, like many forms of social-media, is now part of every day life for many people; councils who prohibit people, including community journalists, from tweeting or blogging at public council meetings are merely delaying the inevitable. The fact is, sooner or later what is discussed, debated and decided at public council meetings will inevitably be communicated to the wider community by people other than councils themselves – it is simply a matter of time. Councils who have already acknowledged such inevitabilities, in a developing digital age, are to be commended for doing what is right and proper in the interest of local government accountability and transparency. Those councils who continue, as Eric Pickles puts it, “to cling to analogue interpretations of council rules,” are arguably in danger of making themselves look undemocratic and unaccountable – a situation no governmental organisation should wish to find themselves in.

    @misc{ambrose_tweeting_2014,
    type = {Blog},
    title = {Tweeting at community council meetings: the role of community journalists in local government scrutiny},
    shorttitle = {Tweeting at community council meetings},
    url = {http://www.communityjournalism.co.uk/blog/2014/04/30/tweeting-at-community-council-meetings-the-role-of-community-journalists-in-local-government-scrutiny/},
    abstract = {Twitter, like many forms of social-media, is now part of every day life for many people; councils who prohibit people, including community journalists, from tweeting or blogging at public council meetings are merely delaying the inevitable. The fact is, sooner or later what is discussed, debated and decided at public council meetings will inevitably be communicated to the wider community by people other than councils themselves – it is simply a matter of time. Councils who have already acknowledged such inevitabilities, in a developing digital age, are to be commended for doing what is right and proper in the interest of local government accountability and transparency. Those councils who continue, as Eric Pickles puts it, “to cling to analogue interpretations of council rules,” are arguably in danger of making themselves look undemocratic and unaccountable – a situation no governmental organisation should wish to find themselves in.},
    urldate = {2014-10-02},
    journal = {Centre for Community Journalism},
    author = {Ambrose, Ian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2014},
    note = {Ian Ambrose is a law and public services graduate from Swansea. A former Pennard Community Councillor, Ian reports on Pennard Community Council (Swansea) meetings via his blog and Twitter account @PennardBlogger. Ian is passionate about meaningful citizen engagement and participation and is also developing an online hyper-local news provision (Gower News) for the Gower Peninsula area of Swansea. Ian is a current participant on an online FutureLearn course, Community Journalism, delivered by Cardiff University’s Centre for Community Journalism.},
    keywords = {Accountability, hyperlocal, Local Government},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/KDHVSX8A/Tweeting at community council meetings the role o.html:text/html}
    }

2013

  • Pearson, M., Kingsbury, J. & Fox, D. (2013) Destination Local: Our Lessons to date. .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Hyperlocal media may be defined as online news or content services pertaining to a town single postcode or other small, geographically defined community. In this, our interim report, we set out our findings and lessons learnt in the past year from Destination Local, our hyperlocal media programme.

    @techreport{pearson_destination_2013,
    title = {Destination {Local}: {Our} {Lessons} to date.},
    url = {http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/destination-local-our-lessons-date},
    abstract = {Hyperlocal media may be defined as online news or content services pertaining to a town single postcode or other small, geographically defined community. In this, our interim report, we set out our findings and lessons learnt in the past year from Destination Local, our hyperlocal media programme.},
    institution = {Nesta},
    author = {Pearson, Mark and Kingsbury, Jon and Fox, Deborah},
    year = {2013}
    }

2012

  • Thurman, N., Pascal, J. & Bradshaw, P. (2012) Can big media do Big Society? A critical case study of commercial, convergent hyperlocal news. IN International journal of media & cultural politics, 8.269-285. doi:10.1386/macp.8.2-3.269_1
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{thurman_can_2012,
    title = {Can big media do {Big} {Society}? {A} critical case study of commercial, convergent hyperlocal news},
    volume = {8},
    issn = {17408296, 20400918},
    shorttitle = {Can big media do {Big} {Society}?},
    url = {http://openurl.ingenta.com/content/xref?genre=article&issn=1740-8296&volume=8&issue=2&spage=269},
    doi = {10.1386/macp.8.2-3.269_1},
    language = {en},
    number = {2},
    urldate = {2016-01-06},
    journal = {International Journal of Media \& Cultural Politics},
    author = {Thurman, Neil and Pascal, Jean-Christophe and Bradshaw, Paul},
    month = sep,
    year = {2012},
    pages = {269--285}
    }

  • Damien, R. (2012) Here and Now: UK hyperlocal media today .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @techreport{damien_here_2012,
    title = {Here and {Now}: {UK} hyperlocal media today},
    url = {http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/here-and-now-uk-hyperlocal-media-today},
    institution = {Nesta},
    author = {Damien, Radcliffe},
    year = {2012}
    }

2011

  • Metzgar, E. T., Kurpius, D. D. & Rowley, K. M. (2011) Defining hyperlocal media: Proposing a framework for discussion. IN New media & society, 13.772-787. doi:10.1177/1461444810385095
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Although the word ‘hyperlocal’ appears regularly in discussions about the future of the news media, there is no agreed-upon definition for the term. Recognizing that shortcoming, we demonstrate the need for a more precise definition. We then propose a definition and criteria for evaluating media operations described as hyperlocal. Finally, we apply our working definition to six operations widely regarded as exemplars of the hyperlocal prototype, comparing each to established standards of journalism and to one another. We conclude that hyperlocal media operations are evolving on a continuum. As they evolve, these organizations will showcase both a range of journalism acting in the public good and engagement facilitated through interactive media. We expect the definition of hyperlocal to evolve, too, as more voices enter the discussion and closer attention is given to the characteristics of websites deemed worthy of the appellation.

    @article{metzgar_defining_2011,
    title = {Defining hyperlocal media: {Proposing} a framework for discussion},
    volume = {13},
    issn = {1461-4448, 1461-7315},
    shorttitle = {Defining hyperlocal media},
    url = {http://nms.sagepub.com/content/13/5/772},
    doi = {10.1177/1461444810385095},
    abstract = {Although the word ‘hyperlocal’ appears regularly in discussions about the future of the news media, there is no agreed-upon definition for the term. Recognizing that shortcoming, we demonstrate the need for a more precise definition. We then propose a definition and criteria for evaluating media operations described as hyperlocal. Finally, we apply our working definition to six operations widely regarded as exemplars of the hyperlocal prototype, comparing each to established standards of journalism and to one another. We conclude that hyperlocal media operations are evolving on a continuum. As they evolve, these organizations will showcase both a range of journalism acting in the public good and engagement facilitated through interactive media. We expect the definition of hyperlocal to evolve, too, as more voices enter the discussion and closer attention is given to the characteristics of websites deemed worthy of the appellation.},
    language = {en},
    number = {5},
    urldate = {2016-01-08},
    journal = {New Media \& Society},
    author = {Metzgar, Emily T. and Kurpius, David D. and Rowley, Karen M.},
    month = aug,
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Civic engagement, future of journalism, hyperlocal media, public sphere},
    pages = {772--787},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/C8UV9BGQ/772.html:text/html}
    }

  • Lowrey, W. (2011) Institutionalism, News Organizations and Innovation. IN Journalism studies, 12.64-79. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2010.511954
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This study adopts new institutional theory from the sociology of organizations, as well as concepts from the study of social networks, to help explain news organizations’ struggles to innovate in the face of uncertainty. This literature suggests organizations with institutional orientations tend to adopt fleeting change, following industry trends, or even buffering internal processes from innovation in the product. In contrast, organizations that network with markets and readers tend to adopt more substantial change. Factors shaping managers’ decision-making are explored, with a particular focus on the role environmental uncertainty plays in news organizations pursuing connections within the news institution (strong ties) or with audiences (weak ties). Data from a survey of news organizations and an analysis of features on their websites suggest levels of innovation are low, and institutionalist tendencies dominate decision-making about product change. Where innovation occurs, it is due to corporate coercion and resources, and concrete evidence from the organization’s market. Uncertainty about audiences and technologies tends to reinforce institutionalist tendencies by encouraging managers to follow present industry trends. Uncertainty does seem to fuel the news organization’s internal capacity to innovate, but it does not lead to actual changes in website features. This suggests news organizations are decoupling internal processes from external processes—more evidence of an institutional orientation.

    @article{lowrey_institutionalism_2011,
    title = {Institutionalism, {News} {Organizations} and {Innovation}},
    volume = {12},
    issn = {1461-670X},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2010.511954},
    doi = {10.1080/1461670X.2010.511954},
    abstract = {This study adopts new institutional theory from the sociology of organizations, as well as concepts from the study of social networks, to help explain news organizations' struggles to innovate in the face of uncertainty. This literature suggests organizations with institutional orientations tend to adopt fleeting change, following industry trends, or even buffering internal processes from innovation in the product. In contrast, organizations that network with markets and readers tend to adopt more substantial change. Factors shaping managers' decision-making are explored, with a particular focus on the role environmental uncertainty plays in news organizations pursuing connections within the news institution (strong ties) or with audiences (weak ties). Data from a survey of news organizations and an analysis of features on their websites suggest levels of innovation are low, and institutionalist tendencies dominate decision-making about product change. Where innovation occurs, it is due to corporate coercion and resources, and concrete evidence from the organization's market. Uncertainty about audiences and technologies tends to reinforce institutionalist tendencies by encouraging managers to follow present industry trends. Uncertainty does seem to fuel the news organization's internal capacity to innovate, but it does not lead to actual changes in website features. This suggests news organizations are decoupling internal processes from external processes—more evidence of an institutional orientation.},
    number = {1},
    urldate = {2014-07-14},
    journal = {Journalism Studies},
    author = {Lowrey, Wilson},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {absorbative capacity},
    pages = {64--79},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/SDZW3GX4/Lowrey - 2011 - Institutionalism, News Organizations and Innovatio.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/7QWKE9I5/Lowrey - 2011 - Institutionalism, News Organizations and Innovatio.html:text/html}
    }

2015

  • Uskali, T. I. & Kuutti, H. (2015) Models and Streams of Data Journalism. IN The journal of media innovations, 2.77. doi:10.5617/jmi.v2i1.882
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This paper presents the initial results of a two-year research project, the Data Journalism Work Practices, which focuses on newsrooms in Finland, UK and US. Data journalism or data-driven journalism has been defined simply as journalism based on large data sets (or big data) Rogers 2011; Bounegru et al. 2012). According to our ongoing research on data journalism work methods, we can claim this has been an oversimplification. In this paper we will argue that all the brief definitions of data journalism lack nuances, and the multiple layers that contemporary data journalism already consists of in newsrooms. Based on six interviews of leading Finnish, American and British data journalists we can claim that there are already at least three different models for organizing data journalism work practices, and two main streams of data journalism, not just one.

    @article{uskali_models_2015,
    title = {Models and {Streams} of {Data} {Journalism}},
    volume = {2},
    issn = {1894-5562},
    url = {https://www.journals.uio.no/index.php/TJMI/article/view/882},
    doi = {10.5617/jmi.v2i1.882},
    abstract = {This paper presents the initial results of a two-year research project, the Data Journalism Work Practices, which focuses on newsrooms in Finland, UK and US. Data journalism or data-driven journalism has been defined simply as journalism based on large data sets (or big data) Rogers 2011; Bounegru et al. 2012). According to our ongoing research on data journalism work methods, we can claim this has been an oversimplification. In this paper we will argue that all the brief definitions of data journalism lack nuances, and the multiple layers that contemporary data journalism already consists of in newsrooms. Based on six interviews of leading Finnish, American and British data journalists we can claim that there are already at least three different models for organizing data journalism work practices, and two main streams of data journalism, not just one.},
    number = {1},
    urldate = {2015-03-12},
    journal = {The Journal of Media Innovations},
    author = {Uskali, Turo I and Kuutti, Heikki},
    month = mar,
    year = {2015},
    pages = {77}
    }

  • Agarwal, S. D. & Barthel, M. L. (2015) The friendly barbarians: Professional norms and work routines of online journalists in the United States. IN Journalism, 16.376-391. doi:10.1177/1464884913511565
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{agarwal_friendly_2015,
    title = {The friendly barbarians: {Professional} norms and work routines of online journalists in the {United} {States}},
    volume = {16},
    issn = {1464-8849, 1741-3001},
    shorttitle = {The friendly barbarians},
    url = {http://jou.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1464884913511565},
    doi = {10.1177/1464884913511565},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    urldate = {2015-03-17},
    journal = {Journalism},
    author = {Agarwal, S. D. and Barthel, M. L.},
    month = apr,
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {changing behaviour, innovation, norms, online journalism},
    pages = {376--391}
    }

2014

  • Coddington, M. (2014) Clarifying Journalism’s Quantitative Turn. IN Digital journalism, .1-18. doi:10.1080/21670811.2014.976400
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As quantitative forms have become more prevalent in professional journalism, it has become increasingly important to distinguish between them and examine their roles in contemporary journalistic practice. This study defines and compares three quantitative forms of journalism—computer-assisted reporting, data journalism, and computational journalism—examining the points of overlap and divergence among their journalistic values and practices. After setting the three forms against the cultural backdrop of the convergence between the open-source movement and professional journalistic norms, the study introduces a four-part typology to evaluate their epistemological and professional dimensions. In it, the three forms are classified according to their orientation toward professional expertise or networked participation, transparency or opacity, big data or targeted sampling, and a vision of an active or passive public. These three quantitative journalistic forms are ultimately characterized as related but distinct approaches to integrating the values of open-source culture and social science with those of professional journalism, each with its own flaws but also its own distinct contribution to democratically robust journalistic practice.

    @article{coddington_clarifying_2014,
    title = {Clarifying {Journalism}’s {Quantitative} {Turn}},
    volume = {0},
    issn = {2167-0811},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2014.976400},
    doi = {10.1080/21670811.2014.976400},
    abstract = {As quantitative forms have become more prevalent in professional journalism, it has become increasingly important to distinguish between them and examine their roles in contemporary journalistic practice. This study defines and compares three quantitative forms of journalism—computer-assisted reporting, data journalism, and computational journalism—examining the points of overlap and divergence among their journalistic values and practices. After setting the three forms against the cultural backdrop of the convergence between the open-source movement and professional journalistic norms, the study introduces a four-part typology to evaluate their epistemological and professional dimensions. In it, the three forms are classified according to their orientation toward professional expertise or networked participation, transparency or opacity, big data or targeted sampling, and a vision of an active or passive public. These three quantitative journalistic forms are ultimately characterized as related but distinct approaches to integrating the values of open-source culture and social science with those of professional journalism, each with its own flaws but also its own distinct contribution to democratically robust journalistic practice.},
    number = {0},
    urldate = {2015-01-23},
    journal = {Digital Journalism},
    author = {Coddington, Mark},
    year = {2014},
    pages = {1--18},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/X2B2QT2A/Coddington - 2014 - Clarifying Journalism’s Quantitative Turn.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/TWK3S5FT/21670811.2014.html:text/html}
    }

  • Lewis, S. C. & Usher, N. (2014) Code, Collaboration, And The Future Of Journalism. IN Digital journalism, 2.383-393. doi:10.1080/21670811.2014.895504
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Amid the rise of computational and data-driven forms of journalism, it is important to consider the institutions, interactions, and processes that aim to help the social worlds of journalism and technology come together and collaborate around a common cause of news innovation. This paper examines one of the most prominent such efforts: the transnational grassroots organization called Hacks/Hackers. Through a two-year qualitative case study, we sought to understand just how journalists and technologists would engage through this organization: what kinds of interactions would occur, and what factors might facilitate collaboration? Drawing upon the science and technology studies concept of “trading zones,” we examine how Hacks/Hackers functions as an informal and transitory trading zone through which journalists and technologists can casually meet and coordinate. The level of engagement between the two groups, we found, depends on a set of social and structural factors, including institutional support and the leadership of key volunteers, and the depth of that engagement depends on sufficient mutual understanding among journalists and hackers. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the challenges and opportunities presented through the intersection of journalism and technology.

    @article{lewis_code_2014,
    title = {Code, {Collaboration}, {And} {The} {Future} {Of} {Journalism}},
    volume = {2},
    issn = {2167-0811},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2014.895504},
    doi = {10.1080/21670811.2014.895504},
    abstract = {Amid the rise of computational and data-driven forms of journalism, it is important to consider the institutions, interactions, and processes that aim to help the social worlds of journalism and technology come together and collaborate around a common cause of news innovation. This paper examines one of the most prominent such efforts: the transnational grassroots organization called Hacks/Hackers. Through a two-year qualitative case study, we sought to understand just how journalists and technologists would engage through this organization: what kinds of interactions would occur, and what factors might facilitate collaboration? Drawing upon the science and technology studies concept of “trading zones,” we examine how Hacks/Hackers functions as an informal and transitory trading zone through which journalists and technologists can casually meet and coordinate. The level of engagement between the two groups, we found, depends on a set of social and structural factors, including institutional support and the leadership of key volunteers, and the depth of that engagement depends on sufficient mutual understanding among journalists and hackers. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the challenges and opportunities presented through the intersection of journalism and technology.},
    number = {3},
    urldate = {2015-03-24},
    journal = {Digital Journalism},
    author = {Lewis, Seth C. and Usher, Nikki},
    month = jul,
    year = {2014},
    pages = {383--393},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/73R7MZRM/Lewis and Usher - 2014 - Code, Collaboration, And The Future Of Journalism.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/NE67FUW8/Lewis and Usher - 2014 - Code, Collaboration, And The Future Of Journalism.html:text/html}
    }

  • Wieseltier, L. (2014) The Emptiness of Data Journalism. IN The new republic, ..
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nate Silver could learn a lot from those op-ed columnists he maligns

    @article{wieseltier_emptiness_2014,
    title = {The {Emptiness} of {Data} {Journalism}},
    issn = {0028-6583},
    url = {http://www.newrepublic.com/article/117068/nate-silvers-fivethirtyeight-emptiness-data-journalism},
    abstract = {Nate Silver could learn a lot from those op-ed columnists he maligns},
    urldate = {2015-01-14},
    journal = {The New Republic},
    author = {Wieseltier, Leon},
    month = mar,
    year = {2014},
    file = {New Republic Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/S3NFCF5A/Wieseltier - 2014 - The Emptiness of Data Journalism.html:text/html}
    }

2013

  • Parasie, S. & Dagiral, E. (2013) Data-driven journalism and the public good: “Computer-assisted-reporters” and “programmer-journalists” in Chicago. IN New media & society, 15.853-871. doi:10.1177/1461444812463345
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the mid-2000s, some US and British news organizations have hired programmers to design data-driven news projects within the newsroom. But how does the rise of these “programmer-journalists,” armed with their skills and technical artifacts, really affect the way journalism can contribute to the public good? Based on an empirical study in Chicago, we show in this article that although they have built on previous historical developments, these programmer-journalists have also partly challenged the epistemology conveyed by the computer-assisted reporting tradition in the US, grounded in the assumption that data can help journalists to set the political agenda through the disclosure of public issues. Involved in open source communities and open government advocacy, these programmers and their technical artifacts have conveyed challenging epistemological propositions that have been highly controversial in the journalism community.

    @article{parasie_data-driven_2013,
    title = {Data-driven journalism and the public good: “{Computer}-assisted-reporters” and “programmer-journalists” in {Chicago}},
    volume = {15},
    issn = {1461-4448, 1461-7315},
    shorttitle = {Data-driven journalism and the public good},
    url = {http://nms.sagepub.com/content/15/6/853},
    doi = {10.1177/1461444812463345},
    abstract = {Since the mid-2000s, some US and British news organizations have hired programmers to design data-driven news projects within the newsroom. But how does the rise of these “programmer-journalists,” armed with their skills and technical artifacts, really affect the way journalism can contribute to the public good? Based on an empirical study in Chicago, we show in this article that although they have built on previous historical developments, these programmer-journalists have also partly challenged the epistemology conveyed by the computer-assisted reporting tradition in the US, grounded in the assumption that data can help journalists to set the political agenda through the disclosure of public issues. Involved in open source communities and open government advocacy, these programmers and their technical artifacts have conveyed challenging epistemological propositions that have been highly controversial in the journalism community.},
    language = {en},
    number = {6},
    urldate = {2014-07-03},
    journal = {New Media \& Society},
    author = {Parasie, Sylvain and Dagiral, Eric},
    month = sep,
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Computer-assisted reporting, database, data-driven journalism, epistemology of news, hackers, investigative journalism, online news, programmer-journalists},
    pages = {853--871},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/VP23IIUA/Parasie and Dagiral - 2013 - Data-driven journalism and the public good “Compu.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/7BG6CA3D/Parasie and Dagiral - 2013 - Data-driven journalism and the public good “Compu.html:text/html}
    }

  • Goggin, G. (2013) Democratic affordances: Politics, media, and digital technology after WikiLeaks. IN Ethical space, 10.6-14. doi:http://journals.communicationethics.net/article.php?id=00044
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @article{goggin_democratic_2013,
    title = {Democratic affordances: {Politics}, media, and digital technology after {WikiLeaks}},
    volume = {10},
    shorttitle = {Democratic affordances},
    url = {http://journals.communicationethics.net/abstract.php?id=00044},
    doi = {http://journals.communicationethics.net/article.php?id=00044},
    number = {2/3},
    urldate = {2015-04-13},
    journal = {Ethical Space},
    author = {Goggin, Gerard},
    year = {2013},
    note = {Ethical Space: The International Journal of Communication Ethics.},
    keywords = {affordances, data journalism, democratic affordances, scientific journalism, wikileakes},
    pages = {6--14},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/Z4HD2MWB/Goggin - 2013 - Democratic affordances Politics, media, and digit.html:text/html;v10n2-3_feat1.pdf:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/G9ZZKNIN/v10n2-3_feat1.pdf:application/pdf}
    }

  • Lewis, S. C. & Usher, N. (2013) Open source and journalism: toward new frameworks for imagining news innovation. IN Media, culture & society, 35.602-619. doi:10.1177/0163443713485494
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Journalists and technologists increasingly are organizing and collaborating, both formally and informally, across major news organizations and via grassroots networks on an international scale. This intersection of so-called ‘hacks and hackers’ carries with it a shared interest in finding technological solutions for news, particularly through open-source software programming. This article critically evaluates the phenomenon of open source in journalism, offering a theoretical intervention for understanding this phenomenon and its potential implications for newswork. Building on the literature from computer science and journalism, we explore the concept of open source as both a structural framework of distributed development and a cultural framework of pro-social hacker ethics. We identify four values of open-source culture that connect with and depart from journalism—transparency, tinkering, iteration, and participation—and assess their opportunities for rethinking journalism innovation.

    @article{lewis_open_2013,
    title = {Open source and journalism: toward new frameworks for imagining news innovation},
    volume = {35},
    issn = {0163-4437, 1460-3675},
    shorttitle = {Open source and journalism},
    url = {http://mcs.sagepub.com/content/35/5/602},
    doi = {10.1177/0163443713485494},
    abstract = {Journalists and technologists increasingly are organizing and collaborating, both formally and informally, across major news organizations and via grassroots networks on an international scale. This intersection of so-called ‘hacks and hackers’ carries with it a shared interest in finding technological solutions for news, particularly through open-source software programming. This article critically evaluates the phenomenon of open source in journalism, offering a theoretical intervention for understanding this phenomenon and its potential implications for newswork. Building on the literature from computer science and journalism, we explore the concept of open source as both a structural framework of distributed development and a cultural framework of pro-social hacker ethics. We identify four values of open-source culture that connect with and depart from journalism—transparency, tinkering, iteration, and participation—and assess their opportunities for rethinking journalism innovation.},
    language = {en},
    number = {5},
    urldate = {2014-07-03},
    journal = {Media, Culture \& Society},
    author = {Lewis, Seth C. and Usher, Nikki},
    month = jul,
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {computational journalism, data, hackers, innovation, journalism studies, online journalism, open source, participation, software development, transparency},
    pages = {602--619},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/VRJKBR2C/Lewis and Usher - 2013 - Open source and journalism toward new frameworks .pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/FN83U5QJ/Lewis and Usher - 2013 - Open source and journalism toward new frameworks .html:text/html}
    }

2012

  • Rogers, S. (2012) Anyone can do it. Data journalism is the new punk .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Can anyone be a data journalist? Simon Rogers on what we can learn from a 1977 diagram

    @misc{rogers_anyone_2012,
    title = {Anyone can do it. {Data} journalism is the new punk},
    url = {http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2012/may/24/data-journalism-punk},
    abstract = {Can anyone be a data journalist? Simon Rogers on what we can learn from a 1977 diagram},
    journal = {Guardian DataBlog},
    author = {Rogers, Simon},
    month = may,
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {data journalism}
    }

  • Rogers, S. (2012) Open data journalism. IN The guardian, ..
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Why does data journalism need to be open journalism too? Simon Rogers explains how we do it on the Datablog

    @article{rogers_open_2012,
    chapter = {News},
    title = {Open data journalism},
    issn = {0261-3077},
    url = {http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2012/sep/20/open-data-journalism},
    abstract = {Why does data journalism need to be open journalism too? Simon Rogers explains how we do it on the Datablog},
    language = {en-GB},
    urldate = {2015-08-11},
    journal = {The Guardian},
    author = {Rogers, Simon},
    month = sep,
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {data journalism, Data protection, Data visualisations, Media, Open journalism, Technology, technology},
    file = {Guardian Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/ZR8QIG46/open-data-journalism.html:text/html}
    }

  • Remington, A. (2012) “Social science done on deadline”: Research chat with ASU’s Steve Doig on data journalism .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    2012 interview between News21 collaborators ASU professor Steve Doig and Alex Remington, of Journalist’s Resource.

    @misc{remington_social_2012,
    title = {“{Social} science done on deadline”: {Research} chat with {ASU}’s {Steve} {Doig} on data journalism},
    shorttitle = {“{Social} science done on deadline”},
    url = {http://journalistsresource.org/skills/research/research-chat-steve-doig-data-journalism-social-science-deadline},
    abstract = {2012 interview between News21 collaborators ASU professor Steve Doig and Alex Remington, of Journalist's Resource.},
    urldate = {2015-01-14},
    journal = {Journalist's Resource},
    author = {Remington, Alex},
    month = aug,
    year = {2012},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/V43SBRRR/“Social science done on deadline” Research chat w.html:text/html}
    }

  • Flew, T., Spurgeon, C., Daniel, A. & Swift, A. (2012) The Promise of Computational Journalism. IN Journalism practice, 6.157-171. doi:10.1080/17512786.2011.616655
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Computational journalism involves the application of software and technologies to the activities of journalism, and it draws from the fields of computer science, the social sciences, and media and communications. New technologies may enhance the traditional aims of journalism, or may initiate greater interaction between journalists and information and communication technology (ICT) specialists. The enhanced use of computing in news production is related in particular to three factors: larger government datasets becoming more widely available; the increasingly sophisticated and ubiquitous nature of software; and the developing digital economy. Drawing upon international examples, this paper argues that computational journalism techniques may provide new foundations for original investigative journalism and increase the scope for new forms of interaction with readers. Computational journalism provides a major opportunity to enhance the production of original investigative journalism, and to attract and retain readers online.

    @article{flew_promise_2012,
    title = {The {Promise} of {Computational} {Journalism}},
    volume = {6},
    issn = {1751-2786},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2011.616655},
    doi = {10.1080/17512786.2011.616655},
    abstract = {Computational journalism involves the application of software and technologies to the activities of journalism, and it draws from the fields of computer science, the social sciences, and media and communications. New technologies may enhance the traditional aims of journalism, or may initiate greater interaction between journalists and information and communication technology (ICT) specialists. The enhanced use of computing in news production is related in particular to three factors: larger government datasets becoming more widely available; the increasingly sophisticated and ubiquitous nature of software; and the developing digital economy. Drawing upon international examples, this paper argues that computational journalism techniques may provide new foundations for original investigative journalism and increase the scope for new forms of interaction with readers. Computational journalism provides a major opportunity to enhance the production of original investigative journalism, and to attract and retain readers online.},
    number = {2},
    urldate = {2015-01-27},
    journal = {Journalism Practice},
    author = {Flew, Terry and Spurgeon, Christina and Daniel, Anna and Swift, Adam},
    month = apr,
    year = {2012},
    pages = {157--171},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/SPWMRPJ2/Flew et al. - 2012 - The Promise of Computational Journalism.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/4SBD2HN9/Flew et al. - 2012 - The Promise of Computational Journalism.html:text/html}
    }

2010

  • Arthur, C. (2010) Analysing data is the future for journalists, says Tim Berners-Lee .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Inventor of the world wide web says reporters should be hunting for stories in datasets. By Charles Arthur

    @misc{arthur_analysing_2010,
    title = {Analysing data is the future for journalists, says {Tim} {Berners}-{Lee}},
    url = {http://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/nov/22/data-analysis-tim-berners-lee},
    abstract = {Inventor of the world wide web says reporters should be hunting for stories in datasets. By Charles Arthur},
    urldate = {2013-08-12},
    journal = {the Guardian},
    author = {Arthur, Charles},
    month = nov,
    year = {2010},
    keywords = {data journalism, Digital media, Journalism education, Media, Technology, technology, Tim Berners-Lee},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/6R75NSWM/2010 - Analysing data is the future for journalists, says.html:text/html}
    }

  • DeBarros, A. (2010) Data Journalism and the Big Picture .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The web-o-sphere this week brought forth a collection of opinions on the value of data journalism and the skills that go with it. To wit: Tim Berners-Lee, he who invented the World Wide Web, told t…

    @misc{debarros_data_2010,
    title = {Data {Journalism} and the {Big} {Picture}},
    url = {http://www.anthonydebarros.com/2010/11/26/data-journalism-the-big-picture/},
    abstract = {The web-o-sphere this week brought forth a collection of opinions on the value of data journalism and the skills that go with it. To wit: Tim Berners-Lee, he who invented the World Wide Web, told t...},
    urldate = {2015-01-23},
    journal = {Anthony DeBarros},
    author = {DeBarros, Anthony},
    month = nov,
    year = {2010},
    keywords = {data journalism},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/CKGQNCKG/Data Journalism and the Big Picture.html:text/html}
    }

2004

  • Singer, J. B. (2004) Strange bedfellows? The diffusion of convergence in four news organizations. IN Journalism studies, 5.3-18. doi:10.1080/1461670032000174701
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This study examines newsroom convergence—a combination of technologies, products, staffs and geography among the previously distinct provinces of print, television and online media—through the framework of diffusion of innovations theory. Convergence is becoming a global trend as media companies continue to expand their holdings beyond their original core products. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data drawn from case studies of four US newsrooms, it is suggested that, despite culture clashes and other issues of compatibility, journalists see clear advantages in the new policy of convergence. Journalists perceive experience in a converged newsroom as a career booster, say they enjoy working with colleagues whose strengths differ from their own, and admit that convergence has led to respect for people in other parts of the news organization. At the same time, the diffusion of convergence within the newsroom may be hindered by cultural and technological differences in approaches to newsgathering and dissemination, as well as by a lack of training to alleviate concerns about the perceived complexities of new media formats.

    @article{singer_strange_2004,
    title = {Strange bedfellows? {The} diffusion of convergence in four news organizations},
    volume = {5},
    issn = {1461-670X},
    shorttitle = {Strange bedfellows?},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1461670032000174701},
    doi = {10.1080/1461670032000174701},
    abstract = {This study examines newsroom convergence—a combination of technologies, products, staffs and geography among the previously distinct provinces of print, television and online media—through the framework of diffusion of innovations theory. Convergence is becoming a global trend as media companies continue to expand their holdings beyond their original core products. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data drawn from case studies of four US newsrooms, it is suggested that, despite culture clashes and other issues of compatibility, journalists see clear advantages in the new policy of convergence. Journalists perceive experience in a converged newsroom as a career booster, say they enjoy working with colleagues whose strengths differ from their own, and admit that convergence has led to respect for people in other parts of the news organization. At the same time, the diffusion of convergence within the newsroom may be hindered by cultural and technological differences in approaches to newsgathering and dissemination, as well as by a lack of training to alleviate concerns about the perceived complexities of new media formats.},
    number = {1},
    urldate = {2014-07-17},
    journal = {Journalism Studies},
    author = {Singer, Jane B.},
    year = {2004},
    pages = {3--18},
    file = {Full Text PDF:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/BT83DQIW/Singer - 2004 - Strange bedfellows The diffusion of convergence i.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/39VBNEA6/Singer - 2004 - Strange bedfellows The diffusion of convergence i.html:text/html}
    }

  • Alberto Cairo: Data journalism needs to up its own standards .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The data visualization expert argues that FiveThirtyEight and Vox have overpromised and underdelivered — and that they need to treat their data with more scientific rigor.

    @misc{_alberto_????,
    title = {Alberto {Cairo}: {Data} journalism needs to up its own standards},
    shorttitle = {Alberto {Cairo}},
    url = {http://www.niemanlab.org/2014/07/alberto-cairo-data-journalism-needs-to-up-its-own-standards/},
    abstract = {The data visualization expert argues that FiveThirtyEight and Vox have overpromised and underdelivered — and that they need to treat their data with more scientific rigor.},
    urldate = {2015-02-03},
    journal = {Nieman Lab},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/XCNKEQZ4/Alberto Cairo Data journalism needs to up its own.html:text/html}
    }

  • Howard, A. Data journalism, data tools, and the newsroom stack – O’Reilly Radar .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The MIT Civic Media conference and 2011 Knight News Challenge winners made it clear that data journalism and data tools will play key roles in the future of media and open government.

    @misc{howard_data_????,
    title = {Data journalism, data tools, and the newsroom stack - {O}'{Reilly} {Radar}},
    url = {http://radar.oreilly.com/2011/07/data-journalism-tools-newsroom-stack.html},
    abstract = {The MIT Civic Media conference and 2011 Knight News Challenge winners made it clear that data journalism and data tools will play key roles in the future of media and open government.},
    urldate = {2015-01-26},
    author = {Howard, Alex},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/4S6MSXTG/Howard - Data journalism, data tools, and the newsroom stac.html:text/html}
    }

  • From FOI to ‘data exhaust’ – data journalism explained \textbar Intelligent Conversation .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @misc{_foi_????,
    title = {From {FOI} to 'data exhaust' - data journalism explained {\textbar} {Intelligent} {Conversation}},
    url = {http://www.weareic.com/from-foi-to-data-exhaust-data-journalism-explained/},
    urldate = {2016-01-11},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/SV9XMIDF/From FOI to 'data exhaust' - data journalism expla.html:text/html}
    }

  • Howard, A. The bond between data and journalism grows stronger – O’Reilly Radar .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This interview with Liliana Bounegru, project coordinator of Data Driven Journalism at the European Journalism Centre, offers more insight into why the importance of data journalism continues to grow in the age of big data.

    @misc{howard_bond_????,
    title = {The bond between data and journalism grows stronger - {O}'{Reilly} {Radar}},
    url = {http://radar.oreilly.com/2012/02/data-journalism-computer-assisted-reporting-government.html},
    abstract = {This interview with Liliana Bounegru, project coordinator of Data Driven Journalism at the European Journalism Centre, offers more insight into why the importance of data journalism continues to grow in the age of big data.},
    urldate = {2015-01-26},
    author = {Howard, Alex},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/58IH5828/Howard - The bond between data and journalism grows stronge.html:text/html}
    }

  • Howard, A. The growing importance of data journalism .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Data journalists now have huge volumes of accessible government data, but a recent panel discussion reveals that cultural roadblocks and dirty data still need to be addressed.

    @misc{howard_growing_????,
    title = {The growing importance of data journalism},
    url = {http://radar.oreilly.com/2010/12/data-journalism.html},
    abstract = {Data journalists now have huge volumes of accessible government data, but a recent panel discussion reveals that cultural roadblocks and dirty data still need to be addressed.},
    urldate = {2015-01-23},
    journal = {O'Reilly Radar},
    author = {Howard, Alex},
    keywords = {data journalism},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/IP8PE9BG/Howard - The growing importance of data journalism - O'Reil.html:text/html}
    }

  • The View on Open Data and Data Journalism: Cases, Educational Resources and Current Trends .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This article describes trends of open data development and a new discipline, which was formed largely due to the fact that the data have become available and open on the Internet. The authors provide a brief overview of the main directions in the

    @misc{_view_????,
    title = {The {View} on {Open} {Data} and {Data} {Journalism}: {Cases}, {Educational} {Resources} and {Current} {Trends}},
    shorttitle = {The {View} on {Open} {Data} and {Data} {Journalism}},
    url = {https://www.academia.edu/18377950/The_View_on_Open_Data_and_Data_Journalism_Cases_Educational_Resources_and_Current_Trends},
    abstract = {This article describes trends of open data development and a new discipline, which was formed largely due to the fact that the data have become available and open on the Internet. The authors provide a brief overview of the main directions in the},
    urldate = {2015-11-16},
    file = {Snapshot:/Users/digitaldickinson/Library/Application Support/Zotero/Profiles/0smfc6zc.default/zotero/storage/CEXQAWW7/The View on Open Data and Data Journalism Cases, .html:text/html}
    }